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Managing Low pH in Growing Media for Reliable Crop Performance

Managing Low pH in Growing Media for Reliable Crop Performance Featured Image

Low pH can cause serious production problems for growers. Learn steps to determining low pH in growing media, how to properly sample for accurate testing and the best options for raising growing media pH. This valuable knowledge will help growers maintain the right growing media pH for their crops to ensure reliable production results.

Three Steps for Determining Low pH

Know Optimal pH for the Crop

Before deciding whether growing media pH is too low, the grower must determine what constitutes low pH for a given crop. For example, if geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) are the main crop, the desirable pH during production should be in the 5.8 – 6.5 range.  Or, if the crop is calibrachoas, petunias, or pansies, the optimal pH during production should be more in the 5.2 – 5.8 range.  Growing media with low pH is generally an issue for plants that are sensitive to excess minor nutrients, which are more available at lower pH ranges.

Know Growing Media pH

Once the desired pH range for a crop is determined, growers must look at the pH of their growing media. Media pH values can vary widely due to a number of factors. The main factors influencing growing media pH are age, ingredients, moisture levels, and storage temperatures. The grower must have a general idea of what the growing media pH will be during production. Media may have an out-of-the-bag pH that is lower than the desired optimal range, but once in production, it should rise within the desired range in 7 to 14 days, assuming water quality and fertilizer selection have been taken into account.

 Know Irrigation Water and Fertilizer pH

Water quality and fertilizer also impact media pH. The pH of irrigation water can vary widely. Highly alkaline water leads to a pH increase. Fertilizer ingredients also impact pH. High nitrate and calcium fertilizers are more alkaline and tend to increase pH over time. High ammonium fertilizers are more acidic and will immediately cause a decrease in pH, followed by additional pH lowering over time.

Testing for Low pH

So how can one determine if the pH is too low? The grower can run tests over time on the unused mix to determine if the pH rises after initial wetting. Generally, growing media that has been wetted down with irrigation water will show a pH increase of 0.3 to 0.5 or more after 24 to 48 hours. If testing shows this expected pH increase, the media should eventually get to the desired range. Media pH can continue to rise slowly over the next 7 to 14 days, but generally if we see the expected increase after 24 – 48 hours it is safe to assume that media pH will be adequate for crop production.  If out-of-the-bag growing media pH is in the 5.4-6.0 range, it should be adequate without further testing.

Sampling Methods for Testing

Collecting proper samples is essential in helping growers determine the pH of growing media. Packaging formats determine the sampling method. For small formats, such as 2.8 cubic foot bags or 3.8 cubic foot bales, the best samples should represent a composite from a few unused bags or bales.  For a small-format composite sample, gather equal samples from 2 or 3 bags, being sure to collect from the middle of the bag or bale, and then combine them. For large formats, such as 55 cubic foot bales or 110 or 120 cubic foot towers, collect composite samples of equal size from a few areas of the bales or towers.

Growing media samples may also be taken from pots during production. To test used mix in production, take equal samples from the middle of numerous pots to create a composite sample for testing.  Avoid sampling from the very top or bottom of the pots.

Different volumes of media should be taken, depending on whether you are testing once or over a period of time. For one-time testing, a quart-sized composite sample is adequate. For testing over time, a gallon-sized composite sample is better.

Label samples to maintain correct testing information and match testing results. Labels should contain the following information: date, type of mix, production code from bag or bale labels, and any special notes regarding the mix. Take notes! All of the information on the label should tie back to the total information of the sample.

If samples are to be sent to a lab, send them overnight or via 2-day air to make sure you get results in a reasonable amount of time. Sample at the beginning of the week to avoid having samples sit over a weekend.

Growing Media pH Testing Methods

There are two main options for testing media pH: on-site testing or lab testing. On-site testing provides immediate results and allows the grower to control the testing process. Lab testing reduces labor input and provides a more complete analysis, including data on all major nutrients. Both methods are recommended. Test on-site, but also send some samples to a lab to support on-site results and to get a more complete analysis of the growing medium.

When testing on-site, a simple and repeatable testing method is achieved by creating a 2:1 dilution. This means adding 2 parts distilled or deionized water to 1 part growing medium. It is easier than the saturated media extract method, as it eliminates the subjective determination of when a mix is “saturated”. After mixing the samples, allow them to sit for 15-20 minutes at room temperature, then test the pH and electrical conductivity (EC) if you have an EC meter.  Stay consistent in the time you allow the sample to sit.

Continue to test the pH of your growing media. Test media before using it in production, and test it again 7 -10 days after initial watering. Then continue to test on a weekly or bi-weekly basis during crop production. Track your results and review them from year to year.  Retest immediately if your results change dramatically to make sure you are not experiencing a test error.

Options for Raising Growing Media pH

Table 1. Options for raising growing media pH.

Table 1. Options for raising growing media pH

There are a number of options when dealing with low pH in growing media. (The different possibilities are listed in Table 1, along with the pros and cons of each method.) The decision on which method (or methods) to use will depend on available labor, greenhouse conditions, and grower preference.

The two easiest options are to stop acidifying water or use potentially basic fertilizers, but they may not provide a quick enough pH change, especially for crops requiring high pH. The use of potentially basic fertilizers should be part of any of the other choices offered in the table.

If a low pH issue is observed prior to potting, lime can be added to the growing media on the filling line, if possible. This will have the best overall impact. Test various rates, but incorporating 2-3 pounds of lime into one cubic yard of mix should bring the mix pH up about 0.5-0.75, depending on the type and coarseness of the lime.  Calcitic lime will increase the pH faster, but it will not last as long as dolomitic lime. Topdressing with lime is another possibility, if the growing media is already in the pots or the crop is already in production, though the impact on pH may not be as great.

The addition of potassium bicarbonate when the mix is already in production is relatively easy, but it offers only a temporary solution. It may be a good choice if a grower feels that the fertilizer regimen will eventually bring the pH up, but they need a short-term quick fix. Otherwise, the addition of potassium bicarbonate will need to be repeated every 10-14 days to keep the pH up. Rate for potassium bicarbonate is 1 to 2 pounds per 100 gallons of final solution (1 to 2 pounds per gallon for a 1:100 injector). Some growers have reported issues with potassium bicarbonate in the stock tank when water pH is above 7. Do not combine potassium bicarbonate in the same stock tank with the regular fertilizer!

The final option would be to use a flowable or liquid lime addition. This can be done when the crop is already in production. Examples of flowable lime are CalOx® and Cal-Flo®. They are generally direct-injected from the container at a ratio of 1:100. This should provide around a 0.5 pH unit increase. CalOx® can be injected at 1:5 ratio, providing a greater pH increase. If a higher pH increase is preferred, multiple applications can be made 7-10 days apart, or the product can be diluted in a large tank and applied with a water pump. These products can cause issues with emitters, so they are commonly applied by hand with a hose and regular breaker.

Sun Gro Media Testing:

Sun Gro’s grower technical specialists exist nationwide. Find your state’s Sun Gro contact by visiting To read a full list of our testing options and sampling methods visit

Gro Your Own! Growing Business through Edible Gardening

Gro your own! LogoEdible gardening is hot! Lawn and garden spending reached $36.1 billion dollars in 2015 according to the National Gardening Survey, bouncing back from a five-year low. In 2015, the average homeowner spent $401 per household on yard or balcony gardens, as opposed to an average of $317 in 2014, and the numbers continue to grow. Heightened interest in green living, healthier eating, and food independence has driven this trend, inspiring homeowners to favor natural and organic growing methods. To support this growing industry, Sun Gro® Horticulture created its Gro Your Own™ edible lifestyle marketing campaign for OMRI Listed® skus representing its premium Black Gold®, Fafard®, and Sunshine® brands.
This NEW edible lifestyle campaign employs promotional how-to and product videos, trade ads, contests & sweepstakes, and web articles to help homeowners grow outstanding food crops with Sun Gro’s OMRI Listed® products. Gro Your Own™ promotional materials and resources allow retailers to better promote the Sun Gro products they sell. And, the campaign’s focus on year-round edible gardening seeks to extend the growing season and boost sales in the fall and winter, when most edible gardening subsides. This is an asset to independent garden centers that remain open through the year or exist in states with milder winters.

Videos and Web Articles

The Gro Your Own™ video series offers practical guides to edible gardening and features professional horticulturist and edible gardening expert, Jessie Keith. The short videos cover a variety of topics, from amending soil to growing artichokes and container tomatoes. Each is designed to offer accessible yet expert information to gardeners at all experience levels.
Last year over 375,000 gardeners accessed online gardening articles on Sun Gro retail webpages, with edible gardening topics being the most popular. Over 900 expert-driven gardening articles, written by nationally and regionally recognized horticulturists, cover many popular edible gardening trends. They also promote best-use practices and show great gardening results using Sun Gro retail products.
Videos and articles also create promotional opportunities for retail vendors. Direct your customers to Black Gold, Fafard, or Sunshine Advanced websites to help them grow better with Sun Gro.

Contests and Sweepstakes

Contests and Sweepstakes
Everyone loves a chance to win! That’s why we created a new series of bi-monthly Black Gold contests and sweepstakes designed to get the public excited about gardening. These promotions have quickly gained ground, since they were first launched February of 2017!
Black Gold sweepstakes winnings are made in partnership with other respected horticultural companies, including Gronomics®, Smart Pot®, Proven Winners®, and High Mowing Seeds. We have offered everything from raised bed kits to fall vegetable garden packages that engage and motivate our customer base to consider new products and ways to garden. Our winners follow up and share their successes with their winnings, inspiring further engagement and interest in our sweeps products. (Interested in partnering with us? Send an email to Bruce Adams.)
Garden photo contests have offered Black Gold customers another opportunity to win while showing off their beautiful gardens and produce! These have proven to be a great way to show how average gardeners find success with Black Gold.
(Visit our Black Gold Contests and Sweepstakes page to get the latest updates.)

Trade Ads Gro your own ad

Gro Your Own™ trade ads in top growing magazines give our products and campaign further visibility and leverage. They are designed to resonate with gardeners seeking to grow their own garden-fresh food.

High-Performing OMRI Listed® Mixes and Amendments

OMRI Listed LogoGardening success starts with great soil, and success yields repeat customers. Our diverse OMRI Listed® mixes and amendments are proven to help gardeners increase food production, naturally and organically. And, select products contain sustainably sourced and innovative ingredients, such as coconut coir, earthworm castings, and our proprietary blend of endomycorrhizae. Our mixes also contain Sun Gro’s patented Silicon RESiLIENCE®. Retailers and gardeners can also visit the our new website and product database to find natural and organic products that best fit their needs.
Eleven OMRI Listed® mix and soil amendment skus will be promoted in the Gro Your Own™ campaign

  1. Black Gold® Natural & Organic Potting Mix with RESiLIENCE®
  2. Black Gold® Seedling Mix with RESiLIENCE®
  3. Black Gold® Waterhold Cocoblend Potting Mix with RESiLIENCE®
  4. Fafard® Natural & Organic Potting Soil with RESiLIENCE®
  5. Sunshine® Natural & Organic Professional Growing Mix with RESiLIENCE®
  6. Sunshine® Advanced Mix #4 Growing Mix with RESiLIENCE®
  7. Sunshine® Advanced Rain Forest Blend with RESiLIENCE®
  8. Sunshine® Advanced Ultra Coir with RESiLIENCE®

Soil Amendments

  1. Black Gold® Just Coir
  2. Black Gold® Earthworm Castings
  3. Black Gold® Garden Compost Blend
© 2016 Sun Gro Horticulture Canada Ltd. All rights reserved. No materials contained herein may be duplicated or used in any way without the express written permission of Sun Gro Horticulture or its legal representatives.
® Black Gold is a registered trademark of ODIN Enterprises II, LLC. Used under license.
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™RESiLIENCE and Our Expertise is Growing are being used as trademarks of Sun Gro Horticulture Canada Ltd.
Not all products available in all markets.

Sun Gro® Horticulture & Proven Winners® Form A New Sales & Distribution Partnership

Proven Winners branded Potting Soils and Plant FoodsSun Gro Horticulture and Proven Winners are pleased to announce that effective immediately Sun Gro will produce, sell and distribute Proven Winners branded Premium All-Purpose Potting Soils, Premium Water Soluble Plant Food, and Premium Continuous Release Plant Foods, available to garden centers from multiple stocking distributors.  The Proven Winners branded Potting Soils and Plant Foods are a strong addition to Sun Gro’s very successful IGC-oriented brand offering: Black Gold®, Fafard®, Sunshine® and Sunshine® Advanced.
This is a huge opportunity for garden centers to have easy access to these vital gardening components specifically formulated to make Proven Winners plants perform at their peak levels for home gardeners.  Retailers will be able to purchase Proven Winners branded Potting Soils and Plant Foods through Sun Gro’s extensive and very successful U.S. distribution network.
Initial IGC warehouse sales will be concentrated through four distribution partners:  Arett Sales, BFG Supply Company, Griffin Greenhouse Supplies and Foster’s Inc. Additionally, these items will continue to be available for purchase from Four Star Greenhouse and Pleasant View Gardens, owners of the Proven Winners brand.
Presently, these items are only available in the United States.
Proven Winners is recognized as the #1 Plant Brand® and market leader in North America.
Sun Gro Horticulture Inc. is North America’s leading supplier of soilless growing mixes to professional greenhouse, nursery growers and retail mixes for independent garden centers.
For more information, please contact:
Bruce Adams, Sun Gro Horticulture
Dave Konsoer, Proven Winners
For more ordering and packaging details, click here.